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Water Sanitising

 Evaluation of electrically superoxidised water against tropical pathogens

Sponsored research was undertaken in Peru in 1998 to investigate the action of HOCl as a water purification agent against tropical pathogens.

“We found that (HOCl) is active against Vibrio cholerae (Cholera) and Salmonella paratyphi (Typhoid fever).

Drinking water collected from impure sources in shanty towns was found to be contaminated with pathogenic coliform bacteria in 53% of cases but the addition of HOCl to a concentration of less than 0.5ppm AFC  killed all pathogenic bacteria.

0.5 ppm AFC is well below WHO maximum chlorine levels for drinking water and is undetectable by taste or smell."

 SODIUM DICHLOROISOCYANURATE (NaDCC – anhydrous and dihydrate) Chemical and Technical Assessment (CTA)

"Dissolution in water produces a series of complex equilibria among a variety of chlorinated and non-chlorinated isocyanurates and free available chlorine (FAC) in the form of hypochlorous acid (HOCl). The latter is widely used for treating potable water, wastewater, water in swimming pools and spas, and many industrial water systems. Elemental chlorine, sodium hypochlorite solution, and calcium hypochlorite are other commonly used sources of FAC. Regardless of the source of FAC, HOCl is the active antimicrobial agent, effective against a wide range of bacteria, fungi, algae, viruses and other microorganisms."

 Sodium Dichloroisocyanurate in Drinking-water Background document for  development of WHO Guidelines for Drinking-water Quality

"NaDCC is the sodium salt of a chlorinated hydroxytriazine and is used as a source of free available chlorine (FAC), in the form of hypochlorous acid (HOCl), for the disinfection of water. It is widely used as a stable source of chlorine for the disinfection of swimming pools and in the food industry, since it is more stable in sunlight than most other sources of chlorine. It is also used as a means of  disinfecting drinking-water, primarily in emergencies, when it provides an easy-to-use source of free chlorine, and, more recently, as the form of chlorine for household point-of-use water treatment."

 The efficacy of chlorine-based disinfectants against planktonic and biofilm bacteria for decentralised point-of-use drinking water

"Based on this evidence disinfectants where HOCl is the dominant chlorine species (HOCl and ECAS) would be appropriate alternative chlorine-based disinfectants for POU drinking water applications."

  Evaluation of Electrically Superoxidised Water Against Tropical Pathogens

"In this study, a 2% solution of superoxidised water disinfected concentrated V. cholerae, S. paratypi and cholera phage in the  laboratory. In a field trial, 2% superoxidised water also killed coliform  bacteria in drinking water samples collected from a shanty town."